Sabtu, 18 Juni 2011

Menatap Masa Depan: Analisis Solution Focused Therapy

Masalah menjadi bagian dari kehidupan. Bahkan konon katanya hidup tanpa masalah berarti tidak mengalami kehidupan sepenuhnya. Begitu juga dalam kehidupan rumah tangga. Rumah tangga dibangun oleh dua orang yang saling mencintai, tetapi bukian berarti mereka tidak memiliki perbedaan. 

Perbedaan adalah suatu hal yang mutlak pasti ada meski kita telah berusaha untuk mengidentifikasikan diri kita pada pasangan kita atau sebaliknya. Selalu saja ada hal-hal yang bertentangan dan berpotensi menibulkan konflik. 

Di saat terjadinya konflik tersebut, banyak pasangan atau keluarga yang pada akhirnya tidak dapat menyelesaikan sendiri masalah tersebut sehingga membutuhkan bantuan orag lain. Di sinilah ilmu Psikologi berperan. Psikologi sebagai sebuah disiplin ilmu baru menawarkan pemahaman tentang manusia secara personal. Pemahaman ini nantinya dapat dikembangkan sebagai sebuah alat untuk membantu mengatasi permasalahan manusia. 

Untuk masalah keluarga telah banyak terapi yang dikembangkan. Mulai dari terapi naratif, terapi struktur keluarga, dan sebagainya. Salah satu terapi yang cukup popular dikenal adalah Solution Focus Therapy atau Terapi Berfokus pada Solusi. Terapi ini termasuk dalam Brief Therapy atau terapi singkat yang dapat dilakukan dalam waktu yang relatif sedikit (dibandingkan bentuk terapi lain) untuk mengatasi masalah yang ada. 

Keunikan terapi ini ada pada bagaimana memandang suatu permasalahan yang ada. Pada umumnya ketika kita menghadapai permasalahan yang ada, kita mencoba menggali lebih dalam mengenai permasalahan tersebut. Mulai dari apa penyebabnya, siapa saja yang terlibat, mengapa itu menjadi suatu masalah tersendiri, dan sebagainya. 

Namun terapi ini cukup berbeda. Seolah melewati begitu saja fase pemahaman akan suatu masalah, terpai ini justru langsung merujuk pada solusi apa yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Terapi ini berfokus pada saat ini dan sekarang. Masalah dipandang sebagai sesuatu yang terjadi pada masa lampau dan tidak dapat diubah kembali. Terlalu lama berlarut dalam masalah yang terjadi pada masa lalu tidak akan menghasilkan kemajuan apapun, sehingga cara terbaik yang dapat dilakukan adalah berfokus pada saat ini dan menatap masa depan dengan memikirkan tindakan yang dapat menyelesaikan permasalahan tersebut. 

Dalam terapi ini, psikolog atau konselor akan bertindak secara aktif terhadap klien dengan menggunakan miracle questions. Konselor atau psikolog akan bertanya banyak hal kepada klien namun pertanyaan inilah yang akan menuntun klien untuk mencari solusi. Berbeda dengan kebanyakan pendekatan dimana pertanyaan diajukan untuk menimbulkan pemahaman klien akan masalah tersebut. 

Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini menggunakan bahasa yang psoitif dan berfokus pada hasil. Pertanyaan ini juga sebisa mungkin menghindari untuk mengarahkan klien pada masa lalu. Klien diarahkan untuk mencari tahu sendiri apa yang bisa dirinya lakukan saat ini untuk mengatasi masalahnya daripada harus tenggelam dalam masalah tersebut. 

Namun bentuk terapi ini tidak semudah yang tampak. Orang pada umumnya akan mencoba menggali terlebih dahulu masalah yang mereka hadapi secara lebih mendalam. Terlebih adanya anggapan dengan mengetahui dan mendalami permasalahan yang ada kita akan menjadi mampu untuk menyelesaikannya. Hal ini dianggap akan membuang-buang waktu yang ada. Mengarahkan klien untuk tetap berfokus pada masa depan dan solusi dengan mengkerdilkan gagasan untuk mendalami masalah tersebut bukanlah sesuatu yang mudah. 

Selain itu kritik terbesar dari bentuk terapi ini adalah terapi ini hanya menghasilkan solusi yang sifatnya instan dan tidak permanen. Penghindaran terhadap sumber dan esensi dari masalah yang dihadapi diperkirakan akan meningkatkan kemungkinan seseorang mengulangi kesalahan yang sama hingga menimbulkan masalah tersebut kembali terulang. 

Dari sekian kekurangan dan kelebihan yang dimiliki, pada akhirnya terapi ini cukup efektif dalam mengatasi masalah-masalah yang ada dalam waktu singkat. Terlebih jika masalah-masalah yang dihadapi bukan masalah yang berat dan mendalam.


*) ditulis sebagai tugas UAS mata kuliah Pengantar Konseling Keluarga dan Perkawinan

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